Tikamgarh district lies in the northern part of Madhya Pradesh.The early history of Tikamgarh district is however not chronicled, though as suggested by the numerous ruins of buildings and other old remains lies scattered at various places, viz Orchha, Garh Kudar, Prithvipur, Barana, Lidhoura, Digora, Mohangarg, Baldeogarh and Tikamgarh, it must be having a glorious past.
The district was the part of vast empires successively ruled by the Mauryas, the Sungas and the imperial Guptas. It was in the first quarter of ninth century A.D., that Mannuka founded a new dynasty the Chandel dynasty in this area. Tikamgarh alongwith Khajuraho and Mahoba formed part of extensive Chandel Kingdom..
The Khangras also held this region specially around Garh Kundar. The rising power of Bundelas in this region resulted into the downfall of the Khangras. The Orchha records trace the descent of the Bundela Kingdom of Orchha from Garh Kudar chiefs of Benaras Hemkaran, also known as Pancham Bundela.
The basic geographical and demographic profile of Tikamgarh
is as under:
||5048 sq kms
||780 82' 71E
||240 73' 38N
||210-314 meters above Sea Level
|Annual Rainfall (average)
Winter Min. (Nov.-Jan, 2006) 100 C-260
Summer Max. (April-July, 2004) 290C-470C
||From the North West to South East in Winter and reverse
|Total Population (2001 census)
12,02,998 (Rural population-990265 (82.32%)
(Urban population-212733 (17.68%)
|Density of population/sq. km.
|| 238 Persons (2001)
|Crude Birth Rate (per 1000)
|Crude Death Rate (per 1000)
|Infant Mortality Rate (per 1000)
|Sex Ratio (females per 1000 males)
|Decennial Population Growth
Origin of Name
The District takes its name from the headquarters town as Tihri, in Orchha State. In 1783 Raja Vikramajit shifted his capital from Orchha town to Tihri and renamed it Tikamgarh but it was officially recognised in 1887. The name adopted in the honour of Lord Krishna, Tikam being one of his appellations.
Location & Boundaries
Tikamgarh District is located in the northern part of Madhya Pradesh. It forms the north-western part of Sagar District. It lies on the Bundelkhand Plateau between the Jamni, a tributary of Betwa and Dhasan rivers. It extends between the latitude 24 degree 26 minute and 25 degree 34 minute N and between 78 degree26 minute and 79 degree 21 minute Longitudes. The shape of district is triangular. The northern margin is very irregular. The maximum length of the district is about 119 Km. From North to South and width about 80 Km. Tikamgarh District is bounded by Chhatarpur district to east, Lalitpur district Uttar Pradesh to West, Jhansi to North and Sagar to South. The western and Eastern boundaries are formed by two big rivers.
Tikamgarh district is divided into six tehsils grouped into three sub divisions of Tikamgarh, Niwari and Jatara. The Tikamgarh sub division comprises Tikamgarh and Baldeogarh tehsils, Niwari and Prithvipur tehsil form Niwari Sub Division whereas Jatara sub division comprises of Jatara and Palera Tehsil. There are six development blocks namely Tikamgarh, Jatara, Baldeogarh, Palera, Niwari and Prithvipur.
The names of Police Stations located in the district are Tikamgarh, Digora, Lidhoura, Palera, Kudila, Baldeogarh, Khargapur, Orchha, Mohangarh, Niwari, Jatara, Budera, Jeron, Badagaon, Teharka, Sendri, Simra, and Prithvipur.
The District lies in the Ganga Drainage system. The Betwa flows along its north-western boundary. The Dhasan, one of its right bank tributaries and a big stream itself, mark the eastern boundary of the district. Both these rivers flows towards the north-east. The natural drainage of the district is diverted in the opposite directions into these rivers, the Dhasan sharing about 75 percent of the waters of the district. The tributaries of the Betwa flowing in the Tikamgarh district are Jamni, Bagri and Barua.
Lakes and Tanks
According to the settlement records, there were 962 tanks constructed during the Chandela period. Most of which were small with low bunds. Out of these tanks 125 tanks were used for tank-bed cultivation. The number of tanks over the years has now been reduced to 421. However, several tanks are of considerable size, particularly those at Baldeogarh, Bamhauri Barana, Lidhoura, Jatara, and Bir Sagar. It is noticeable that none of these tanks with their massive dams, built by the Chandela and others were originally intended for irrigation. They were evidently constructed merely adjacent to temples, Palace and favorite resorts of the rulers. Their adaptation for irrigation is invariably a modern development.
The district was previously supposed to be unsuitable for the tube-well development programme since it is a hard rock formation area. However the results of Geohdrological survey and drilling of tube wells in the district are encouraging. The primary geohydrological investigations in the entire district has been completed.
There is massive granite rock found at the depth of 4 to 6 meters in the district. The possibility of water bearing strata is therefore remote and the underground water is available at only shallow depth. In 1902, there were 14,800 wells in Orchha State. The number of wells has now considerably increased. There are 49,555 wells in the district out of which 43,806 are irrigation wells and 2,356 are abandoned wells.
The Climate of Tikamgarh district is monsoon type. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season from December to February followed by the hot season, from March to about the middle of June. The period from about mid-June to the end of September is the rainy season. The months of October and November constitute the post-monsoon or transition season.
There is only one rain gauge station in the district at Tikamgarh. The average rainfall of the district is 40 inch. It varies from 33 inch to 54 inch, in different parts of the district. It is seen that rainfall in the district in general increases from northwest to southwest. Parts of the Niwari tehsil and Mohangarh of Jatara tehsil alos come in the low rainfall zone. About 90 percent of the annual rainfall in the district is received during the south-west monsoon season - June - September, July being the rainiest month.
Temperature & Humidity
There is no meteorological observation in the district. The description which follows is based on the records of the observations in the neighbouring districts which have similar climate. After February temperature rise progressively. May is generally the hottest month with mean daily maximum temperature at about 43 degree celcilus and low 29 degree celcicus. On individual day temperature may rise upto about 47 degree Celcious . The relative humidity is high during the monsoon season, it being generally above 70 percent. In the rest of the year the air is comparatively dry. The driest part of the year is summer season when the relative humidity is less than 20 percent the afternoons.